Philip Guo (Phil Guo, Philip J. Guo, Philip Jia Guo, pgbovine)

Working Effectively With Me as Your Research Advisor

Here are some practical tips for working effectively with me if I'm your research advisor. Some of these tips may also apply to working with other professors, but no guarantees! I'm qualified to speak only about my own personal work habits and preferences, not anyone else's.

At the time of writing (July 2017), I've been serving as a research advisor to students for four years – one as a postdoc and three as an assistant professor. So far, I've advised over 25 students from diverse backgrounds and published around 20 papers with my students (almost everything from 2014 onward). Even though I'm still early in my faculty career, I've gained enough experience to know what works (and doesn't work!) for me in terms of advising style. I can't guarantee that my style is “good” by any external metric, but I do know it's how I personally like to work! And I'm probably not going to change much in the next few years :)

The target audience for this article is my own students. I want to give you a set of tips for working effectively with me, given my own personality and work habits. I've developed these from experimenting with what has and has not worked well for me with 25+ students over the past four years. These observations don't necessarily apply to all professors; I just know that they apply to me. Here we go!

First off, if you're a new Ph.D. student, first check out the appendix on Ph.D. orientation.

Get a sense of my current research

Please read this short PDF. It summarizes my recent projects and overall research directions.

Then read Learning Programming at Scale, which expands on the above PDF.

Finally, check out the high-level rationale behind the kinds of research that I do:

Understand how I have to split my time

As a professor, I have to continually balance at least eight sources of work that compete for my time and attention:

  • Teaching – developing course materials, administering and teaching courses, grading, responding to student requests, managing a team of teaching assistants

  • Hands-on research work – long-term research trajectory planning, developing new project ideas, implementing projects by writing code, writing and revising papers

  • Research advising – meeting with students to advise on research projects, running and managing a research group, critiquing students' ideas, writings, and presentations

  • Funding – writing grant proposals, managing funding-related logistics, reviewing other people's grant proposals

  • Academic community service – reviewing papers, organizing professional events, writing recommendation letters, doing professional outreach

  • Department service – department-level committee work, hosting and meeting with visitors, interviewing job candidates

  • University service – university-level committee work, ad-hoc meetings with faculty and school administrators

  • Travel – to academic conferences, to give invited talks at other universities, to meet industry partners, for fundraising

(This list was adapted from Why academics feel overworked.)

Your interactions with me fall under the “Research advising” slot, which is super super super important to me, but the harsh reality is that it's competing with all of those other sources of work. To be even more bleak, you share that slot with the three to five other students whom I usually advise at any given moment.

Thus, your goal is to figure out how to work most effectively with me given the limited time that we have together. The rest of this article provides concrete tips to help you achieve this goal.

Get and stay on my critical path

I (like everyone else!) tend to prioritize projects that are on my critical path. Thus, you will have a much easier time if you get and stay on my critical path. This article provides the relevant details: Whose Critical Path Are You On?

How do you know what's on my critical path at the moment? Glad you asked! This leads me to the next tip ...

Ask me questions

Seriously, please just ask! For instance, want to know what's on my critical path? Just ask. I like to communicate very openly with my students (but see the important points below about privacy).

Even if you think your question is mundane or trivial, just ask! Don't get stuck on something for days just because you're afraid of asking me for help or clarification. Chances are, I've seen that exact problem before or can refer you to someone who has. If something is annoying, painful, or just plain sucks, ask me about it. And if you think that something will make your life easier or more productive, just ask.

There can be great value in spending time figuring things out on your own or grinding it out, but many students err on the side of keeping quiet and then end up wasting a lot of time and getting demoralized. If I really want you to figure something out on your own, then I'll tell you when you ask. Again, just ask!

... but prepare to hear “No” as a response

One side-effect of me making it really, really easy for my students to ask me questions is that I tend to say “No” a lot. But that doesn't mean you shouldn't ask. (See the previous tip!)

Please don't take “No” responses as a personal judgment against you; I'm just responding to your specific question or request. If you want, I'll try my best to give a rationale for why I said “No.”

Don't try to be a mindreader

On a related note, don't try to speculate about what I'm thinking; instead, ask me. Chances are, if you try to speculate, then your mental model of my mind will be off to some degree; the longer you wait before asking, the more it will diverge from reality.

An even more counterproductive pattern I've observed amongst some students is a group of them gossiping with each other to speculate on what their advisor might be thinking or feeling ... that simply amplifies misconceptions. Again, please just ask :)

Work Hard, and Be Easy to Work With

I really like this piece of advice from Conan O'Brien: “Work hard, and be easy to work with.” All of my successful students have exhibited these traits. (Many of my unsuccessful ones have not.)

Watch these two videos for details:

Work wherever and whenever you want, but be available for meetings

I believe in working hard (see above), but I definitely don't think working hard means working non-stop 24/7. That's a foolish strategy, since it's a surefire recipe for burnout and disillusionment.

My best students have worked consistently at a disciplined but sustainable pace, which leaves them enough energy to work really hard right before paper submission deadlines. You'll have 2 to 4 of those deadlines per year, so the few weeks before each are when you'll need the most energy.

One of the most daunting problems that grad students face is knowing how much research work is “enough” for a given week, so that's why it's very important that you ask me if you have any concerns or questions here.

I don't care where you work or when you work. I trust you to find the right balance for yourself to make consistent progress on your research while giving yourself both the time and space to live a healthy life. In practice, most students tend to work in our lab space because it's easier to stay motivated when you're around other students in lab, but do whatever is best for you.

My only expectation in terms of your work schedule is that you're available on reasonable notice for meetings. This means being reasonably responsive to emails and being able to come to the lab (or on Skype) for meetings. You'll need to be very flexible in terms of meeting times to fit with my (often unpredictable) schedule. But unless we have an urgent deadline, I won't hold meetings on nights or weekends.

Get comfortable with varying project pace

During certain time periods, we will be progressing at a low-key, relaxed, and moderate pace on your project, and during other times (especially near paper submission deadlines!) the pace will speed up considerably. That's perfectly normal, so get comfortable with it. I concurrently manage multiple student projects, so not every project will be progressing at a rapid pace all the time.

Again, it's normal not to feel super-duper-productive during certain slow weeks, and that's OK. Not all projects run full steam ahead 100% of the time. The most important thing is that you keep moving forward (see the next tip) even during the more low-key times in your project, keep me in the loop on your progress, and be ready to increase the intensity level when needed.

Keep moving, and always bring something to talk about at our meetings

Keep moving. If you're actively working on a project (i.e., not on vacation) and spend more than a few days not doing anything concrete related to it, then you're stuck. It's critical that you talk to me immediately so that I can help you get unstuck ASAP. I won't blame you for being stuck; there's no shame in being stuck; it happens to everyone. It's my job as your advisor to get you unstuck. Joel Spolsky's article Fire And Motion sums up this strategy well:

In infantry battles, [the general] told us, there is only one strategy: Fire and Motion. You move towards the enemy while firing your weapon. The firing forces him to keep his head down so he can't fire at you. (That's what the soldiers mean when they shout "cover me." It means, "fire at our enemy so he has to duck and can't fire at me while I run across this street, here." It works.) The motion allows you to conquer territory and get closer to your enemy, where your shots are much more likely to hit their target. If you're not moving, the enemy gets to decide what happens, which is not a good thing. If you're not firing, the enemy will fire at you, pinning you down.

Most of the unsuccessful students I've observed fail not because they're not smart or hardworking, but because they get stuck for extended periods of time and grow demoralized. Keep moving.

One possible objection to this seemingly-simple strategy is, “but how do I constantly keep moving? I can't have a brilliant research-worthy insight every day! Should I just stare blankly at the wall brainstorming until a moment of true insight strikes me?” No, keep moving. Professor John Regehr has a great answer in his provocatively-named blog post (emphasis mine):

Phil vividly describes the sinking feeling that he was just doing grunt work, not research. This feeling is extremely common, as is the actual fact of doing grunt work. In systemsy areas of [Computer Science] there's just no way to avoid building lots of stuff, fixing broken crap that other students (or, worse, professors) have built, running repetitive experiments that are hard to fully automate, etc. But here's the thing: doing research isn't like having sex where you might suddenly say to yourself: "Hey, I'm doing it!" Rather, most of the time, the research comes out only in hindsight. You look back over a year or three of hard work and say: What was interesting about what we did there? What did we do and learn that was new? If you can't find anything then you're screwed, but usually this only happens when the project was poorly conceived in the first place.

The "but I'm not doing research" problem comes up so often that I have a little canned speech about it that boils down to: "Work hard and trust me." Really, this is the only way forward, because consciously trying to do research every day just makes no sense when you're working on a large software system. Students who fail to heed this advice risk getting stuck in a kind of research paralysis where they stop making progress. I'm not saying that "Aha!" moments don't exist. They do, and they’re great. But their importance is greatly overstated in narratives about research breakthroughs. For one thing, nine out of ten of these moments results in a useless or non-novel insight. For another, these moments are only possible because of all the preceding hard work. So who's to say that the grunt work isn't part of the research process too?

For my own take on these ideas, watch this video:

This lecture – Advice for first-year Ph.D. students (video) –sums up my “keep moving” philosophy of doing research. Watch the three most relevant parts below, which culminate in the idea of always bringing something concrete to talk about at our meetings.

Part 1: The One-Dimensional Model of Research

Part 2: The N-Dimensional Model of Research

Part 3: My Main Tip for Productive Meetings with Your Research Advisor

Learn to filter suggestions

When I get excited about your project, I often spew out a ton of wild ideas and suggestions and will also send you lots and lots of things to read or mull over. Learn to filter suggestions appropriately and not to take everything I say to mean “you must do this NOW!” Read Filtering for more details.

However, there will be times when I ask you to do something very specific by a certain deadline (e.g., “Please send me these new graphs by Monday night”), and in those cases it's important to get those tasks done well and on time. Learn to differentiate between speculative suggestions (Filtering) and must-do requests.

Understand my personal privacy policy

A good general policy (not just when working with me, but for all interpersonal interactions!) is that everything should be assumed to be private unless it is publicly accessible.

For instance, I like to communicate very openly with my students, but I also trust that all of our conversations (e.g., emails, phone calls, in-person) are kept private. Otherwise it's very easy for misunderstandings to spread like the telephone game. If I want something to be public, I will likely write about it on this website (or elsewhere online), and you can share its URL with anyone.

The contents of unpublished paper drafts should be assumed to be private. We sometimes share our drafts with selected colleagues to get their feedback, and our colleagues will share drafts with us. But enforcing privacy by default is a good way to go, since even if someone is OK with us seeing a document, they may not want it being shared more broadly. When in doubt, ask me!

In terms of informally talking about your own research projects with others, feel free to do so whenever you're comfortable. But if you sense a potential conflict-of-interest or other situation where it may be awkward to talk about your current work with someone, then either talk about an older project of yours or do whatever else feels most comfortable to you. When in doubt, ask me!

Of course, anything that people can find publicly on the web (or elsewhere) is already public, so it's fine to freely share knowledge about what you've found online while working on your research.

Make internship plans early

If you're interested in doing summer internships, please let me know well ahead of time since: 1) you'll probably want to start applying at the beginning of the prior fall term, 2) I may be able to help you get internships if your research is relevant to what my industry colleagues work on, 3) I need to plan ahead for how many students I can realistically fund in the summer, 4) whether you go on internship or not will affect my project planning strategy with you throughout the year, and 5) there may be student visa issues that take time to work out.

Be aware of my cold-emailing etiquette for professional interactions

I'm super-happy to recommend good students for internships, scholarships, full-time jobs, and other professional opportunities. But we need to work together to make sure that the timing and strategy of these recommendations will maximize the chances of success for you.

One undesirable behavior I've seen some students exhibit is to eagerly “jump the gun” and cold-email people about job-related stuff too early and/or without the proper context. This behavior has two bad consequences: 1) It greatly decreases your chances of success. 2) It makes me look irresponsible since I'm your advisor.

In sum, please don't jump the gun and send off an ill-conceived cold-email without consulting me first, since it risks negatively affecting both of us. I'll usually make the proper personal introductions when the timing is right. There are many subtleties in etiquette during these sorts of professional interactions that I'm more than happy to discuss with you if you ask me. Again, please just ask :)

If you can't talk to me, then talk to our graduate advisor or a professional counselor

Finally, I hope that you can talk to me openly about your concerns, but I totally understand that there might be situations when you don't feel comfortable doing so.

In those cases, I highly recommend that you talk to the department's graduate advisor (currently Beverley Walton for cognitive science), since it's their job to be an advocate for students. If you're an undergrad, the grad advisor can still be a good starting point of contact since they know about research group dynamics. I also recommend talking to a professional counselor or therapist if necessary. These are all the right people to talk to since they understand how to protect student privacy and rights, and they also do not have direct conflicts-of-interest with faculty such as myself.

(In contrast, it may be hard to talk to other faculty or students about certain issues, since they might not be able to be totally impartial due to their working relationships with me. You could be putting them in an awkward position without knowing it.)

Appendix A: My orientation for new Ph.D. students

Welcome to grad school! First read this short article: When do you graduate with a Ph.D.?

Then check out these two videos:

Professor Jean Yang's blog post, The Genius Fallacy. Key excerpt from this post (emphasis mine):

What I have learned is that discipline and the ability to persevere are equally, if not more, important to success than being able to look like a smart person in meetings. All of the superstars I've known have worked harder--and often faced more obstacles, in part due to the high volume of work--than other people, despite how much it might look like they are flying from one brilliant result to another from the outside. Because of this, I now want students who accept that life is hard and that they are going to fail. I want students who accept that sometimes work is going to feel like it's going to nowhere, to the point that they wish they were catastrophically failing instead because then at least something would be happening. While confidence might signal resilience and a formidable intellect might decrease the number of obstacles, the main differentiator between a star and simply a smart person is the ability to keep showing up when things do not go well.

Appendix B: What it's like to work in my lab

Although each project is different, here's how the usual flow of a research project works in my lab:

  1. We usually start with a specific paper submission deadline to anchor the project timeline. e.g., it's now January and the next relevant deadline we can realistically make is in September, so let's plan for a nine-month project. Some deadlines are artificial; e.g., if you're away on internship next summer, then your deadline could be the end of this school year.

  2. If you join at the start of a project, we will spend the first few weeks coming up with a project topic that is exciting to both of us, that is a good fit for our respective skill sets, and that stands a strong chance of leading to a published paper (see PG Vlog #28 - Successful Research Collaborations for more details). If you join an existing project, this step would've already been done beforehand. This needfinding process differs depending on project, but it often involves observing how people currently work, interviewing those people, and scouring the web to discover what people currently struggle with in a given domain. We will probably meet once or twice per week during this initial stage.

  3. Then you will start prototyping either a software tool or a set of data analyses that begin to address the problem we identified together in the prior step. Prototypes can come in many forms – paper sketches, PowerPoint presentations, graphs and charts, interactive data visualizations, or working code demos – but their purpose is to enable you to get high-quality feedback each week. The bulk of your project time (usually several months) will be spent in this prototyping phase. When a project picks up steam, I like to meet twice per week with each student to keep up consistent momentum week after week.

  4. Four to six weeks before a paper deadline is when prototyping ends and crunch time begins. This is when we will need to take what we learned from prototypes and start finalizing the results to be written up in a paper submission. For you, this may mean running a formal user study in the lab or running the final versions of data analyses to use in the upcoming paper submission. Research is never “finished” – it's merely shipped. The goal of crunch time is to ship a publishable paper; anything that doesn't fit into the paper's core story can be shelved until after the deadline to potentially use in a future iteration of the project. When crunch time begins, our focus should be exclusively on the impending deadline, not what may or may not come afterward. Real researchers ship.

  5. Two to three weeks before a paper deadline is when super-crunch-time begins. By this point, our entire attention will be focused on writing, editing, and shaping each paper submission to be as strong as possible. We will probably end up meeting three times (or more) per week to make sure that all bases are covered.

  6. After a paper submission, it's time to rest, recover, and loop back to Step 1 :)

(Adapted from Interested in joining my research lab?)

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Created: 2017-07-11
Last modified: 2017-08-21
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